I don't know the Phoenix courses, as I didn't play when I lived there previously, but I can tell you the best restaurant: Los Dos Molinos on Central Ave just a few blocks north of the north entrance to South Mountain Park. Anyways, I hear that Fountain Hills is really nice, and that the people there are really awesome.
Flagstaff is only 2 hours (very scenic) drive from Phoenix, and has some great courses. I just saw the Snow Bowl course last weekend, though it wasn't open yet owing to late snow, but it looks epic. In town they have 3 highly rated 18 hole courses, all with lots of trees and beautiful views. Only problem is that disc golf is seasonal up there...winters are not viable. There is free camping available in the Flagstaff area (e.g., near the base of the snow bowl road), so you can do a whole weekend on a low budget, while simultaneously escaping the heat in the valley.
Drivers: Starlite Wraith (158g), Gummy Champion Leopard (150g), 1st Run Z-Talon (150g)
Mid-Range: Star Classic Roc (146g), R-Pro Roc (157g)
Putt/Approach: Legacy Protege Clozer (158g), Glow DX Aviar (150g)