For the record, the more pertinent rule was this one in my situation: 804.03.G. After the scorecard is turned in, the total score as recorded shall stand with no appeal, except for the following circumstances:
(1) Penalty throws may be assessed at whatever time the infraction is discovered until the director declares the tournament officially over or all awards have been distributed.
So thank you Fore. As for the question, I asked the TD himself about the situation, and he told me no. He said I would have had to have called the infraction, and wrote it down when recording the scores for that hole. If I wrote down his score on that hole already without including the penalty stroke, it was too late to change it. Yes, it was laziness on my part. I trusted the guy who "seemingly" knew the rules, and I trusted the TD. One was more concerned about winning, than winning fairly, and the other was just not knowledgable on the rules. I've been focusing too much time on becoming a 1000 rated player, and not enough time on learning all the ins, and outs of the rules. It was ignorant on my behalf, and it was a learning experience. It won't happen again.
As for having the rules on my phone, I was in Nockamixon state park, and cell phone service was not great. It took almost 5 minutes for me just to bring up the rule about the unplayable lie. It wasn't all the rules at my disposal , it was the result of googling "unplayable lie", and bringing up the cited reference to it on some random site. I will be keeping a hard copy of the rules in my bag as well from now on. I always just trusted people to do the right thing, and not try to cheat. Yes, I'm ignorant for not knowing the rules, but I'm not a bad human being. If you have to cheat to win, you're scum. Somebody find fault in that statement please, so you can show yourself for just being a dick, and contrary.