I didn't need a study of basketball players to tell me this! (But it helps confirm things!)
What I mean by that is that as a golf instructor we'll often tell people when we work on their #1 priority thing "look, this will likely ALWAYS be your #1 priority thing, so you'll have to constantly monitor it." Doesn't matter if the guy's been playing for twenty weeks or twenty years - we tend to have a sort of "swing DNA" that's difficult to change. I've seen it done, but not that often.
The only way to really change it is to convert to an entirely different style. For example, people with a weird putting stroke can sometimes change it by converting to a very different grip or something.
But then they just end up changing their "core issue" and swapping it for a different one. So that really isn't a win either.
Basically, you'll always have a core issue or a set of core issues. If you're inconsistent enough that you don't think you have one, then the core issue is likely simply what's causing the inconsistency. Your wrist isn't extending at the proper rate, or rolling at the proper rate, or whatever for your style of putt. And it's often more than one core issue - oftentimes golfers will have two or three things that they constantly have to monitor. BUT, if they do those things, they play really really well.
If you completely change your putting style, you can swap that core issue (or two, or three) for a different set.
If you can boil something down to cause and effect, you can not only "fix yourself" on the course but you can know which of your priorities needs the most attention. For example (I'm making these up):
a) putt comes out with too much hyzer angle = grip gets too much in the fingers
b) putt wobbles, has OAT = not extending the wrist enough, no finger spring
c) putts miss high and right = arm swing is not inline, dropping the arm too far to the left, failure to paint the pole
In a round if you find yourself missing high and right on the first two putts, you'll incorporate a bit more of a "paint the pole" feel or thought into your next putt, and so on.